Unravelling Polymers

The Definitive Blog on Polymers by Poly Fluoro Ltd.

PEEK Components and Bearings - Durable, lightweight, and dependable

Developing a new polymer is challenging and needs to take into account what end applications are being catered to. Often, specific polymers will be identified for a certain application, but their limitations would be highlighted. Working off these limitations, a new material can be developed that seeks to fill gaps in performance. Selecting the best material is a critical step in the development of a polymer and this selection process will determine the quality of the final product. Strength, durability, malleability and many other factors are considered when a material is being selected and each of these factors holds a significant importance. 

The development of PEEK, however, was surprising because suddenly, we had one polymer that exhibited properties at the far end of nearly every parameter. Whether we talk of tensile strength, strength-to-weight ratio, wear resistance, machinability or temperature resistance, PEEK truly checks all the boxes and leaves little doubt as to its effectiveness any time a debate on material selection is had.

Suffice to say, that the invention of PEEK revolutionized the plastic component manufacturing industry

PEEK was invented in the UK in 1978 and received a US patent in 1982. The processing conditions implemented to mould the material influence its crystallinity, or structure, and this results in the superb mechanical and chemical resistance properties of PEEK. PEEK is also highly resistant to degradation under high temperatures and resilient in organic and aqueous conditions. These properties make PEEK ideal for a wide array of components in diverse industries. Some of the major fields where this dynamic plastic material has been most effective are aerospace, the medical space, food & beverage and also the manufacture of PEEK plastic bearings.

PEEK in aerospace components

PEEK is optimal in aerospace due to its lightweight properties (it has a specific gravity that is half of aluminium), chemical inertness and toughness. Light-weight materials reduce the overall load of a vessel and, thus, reduce fuel costs and helps preserve the environment. Because PEEK is a chemically inert, the material is stable in extreme conditions and can withstand exposure to atmospheric particles. The fact that PEEK can be machined to the kind of close tolerances needed in aerospace make it an ideal material of choice.

PEEK in medical equipment

In the medical field, hygiene, durability and biocompatibility are all important factors when considering what materials to incorporate. PEEK offers flexible and durable properties and it also has no adverse effects on the skin or internal organs, which makes it an ideal material for implants. Biocompatible grades of PEEK can be used as sensor covers and transducers in medical equipment. Such grades ensure that even in the event of bodily contact, there would no adverse effects. Its resistance to extreme temperatures and low moisture absorption properties also make it a preferred choice for pumping mechanisms.

PEEK in food and beverages

The high-temperature resistance of PEEK makes it a favourable option in the production of powders and other ingredients in the food & beverage industry. PEEK is an effective alternative to PET and holds up well under the extreme temperatures for the drying of ingredients in food as well as feed for animals. The high wear resistance of PEEK also makes it an ideal choice for scrappers, where other polymers would either chip or deform. PEEK valves are also critical in coffee machines, where metallic valves have been known to impart an unfamiliar taste to the beverage. Since the last 5-10 years, high-end coffee machines around the world use PEEK valves in their equipment.

PEEK as a bearing material

One field that has some of the most diverse applications of PEEK is the manufacturing PEEK bearings. PEEK makes an ideal material for bearings for many reasons. PEEK bearings can be made self-lubricating (usually with the addition of PTFE at a concentration of 15-25%). Abrasion causes microscopic bits to function as lubrication with inconsequential alteration to the bearings themselves. The durability and high-temperature resistance of PEEK bearings allows them to be thinner and lighter than traditional material bearings. Their light-weight characteristics make them more fuel-efficient and they don’t require the constant grease and maintenance that metallic bearings demand. As a result, PEEK can reduce bearing production and maintenance costs significantly. PEEK bearings can also run for long periods of time without freezing during operation. The low thermal expansion coefficient of PEEK ensures that it retains dimensional integrity over a very wide range of temperatures – both high and low. The chemical resistance of PEEK bearings allows them to withstand conditions that would otherwise cause damage to metal bearings. All these attributes make PEEK bearings an exceptional mechanical component for an endless number of products and functions

As we can see from these examples, PEEK is effective in a range of industries and PEEK bearings have become a favoured option as a mechanical component. PEEK bearings can be found in many different types of products and even in motors that go into the refrigerators and air conditioners in our homes. PEEK bearings will continue to be implemented in more and more products in the future as well. Keep your eyes open for PEEK plastic materials and PEEK bearings in the machines and products around you.

Thermal stability of precision machined polymers

Polymer machining is challenging and throws up many problems that require a deep understanding of the plastic in question to solve. Unlike metals, which lend themselves to tolerances of within a few microns, polymers can rarely be expected to offer anything under 50 microns (0.05mm) on dimensional tolerances. In addition to this, there is unpredictability, both in the post-machining behavior of the part and in the long-term dimensional stability during operation.

For the most part – any post-machining dimensional issues can be easily resolved by observing the polymer for a few days and then working backwards to create the buffers needed such that once the part settles down, it conforms to the drawing requirements. Provided the polymer is processed correctly, there will be a degree of predictability on, say, the shrinkage of the part after machining.

Recently we machined an 8” PTFE Seal, which exhibited a shrinkage of 0.2-0.3mm within 24 hours of machining. When observed for another 24 hours, there was no additional shrinkage seen. In this case, we had to go back to the moulding and sintering cycle (heat cycle for curing the polymer) and make the necessary adjustments such that this shrinkage could be avoided. As an added measure, we ensured that the diameter we machined was on the very far end of the tolerance spectrum, such that even if a 0.1mm shrinkage did occur, the part – which had an overall tolerance of +/-0.25mm, would still be well within the criteria for acceptance.

Performance on the field is another issue altogether. While it is tough to ensure any level of dimensional stability on highly mechanical applications, where the polymer may be surrounded by metals and hence subject to loads and stresses from much harder materials, we do need to understand the reaction of the plastic to heat.

Understanding glass transition temperature

In an engineering application, a plastic will be analysed for load, wear, and temperature resistance. Usually, this third parameter will focus on the maximum service temperature as a measure for whether the polymer can survive in the given application. However, when we look at precision machined components, a lot of thought must be given to the glass transition temperature.

Put simply, the glass transition temperature is the point at which the polymer moves from a crystalline state, to an amorphous state. The resulting shift can be highly significant for a polymer, since the molecules will try and realign to the new state and this can result in dimensional changes to the part itself. In a crystalline state, one would expect the links between molecules to be more rigid. As such, any machining done on the part would be both predictable and allow for a high level of dimensional accuracy at low tolerances. However, when amorphous, the unpredictability sets in and the part is likely to ‘resettle’ causing tolerances to relax.

Therefore, it is not only important to select a polymer that is capable of a certain service temperature, but to also ensure that during operation, the temperatures do not fluctuate in a manner that would cause the part to keep moving over the glass transition threshold. The table and charts below show the glass transition and service temperatures for some high-performance polymers.

If we take the example of PEEK, we can see that the glass transition temperature is 140°C. While this may be well above the service temperature of other polymers, it also causes some problems. PEEK parts that are used at room temperature (25-30°C), but where the application can call for temperatures in excess of 200°C, may experience some issues. So, even though PEEK can withstand the service temperature comfortably, the increase of temperatures beyond 140°C will cause the part to experience changes at the molecular level and may push its dimensions out of tolerance, causing a misalignment in the assembly.

In contrast to PEEK, we have PI (Polyimide). Here we see that the glass transition temperature is 340°C – very close to the maximum service temperature of 360°C. As a result, for high temperature applications, PI ensures that you can operate close to its limit and not sacrifice any dimensional integrity.

Other polymers, such as PTFE, LDPE, and HDPE, have glass transition temperatures well below zero. This implies that for any non-sub-zero application, the polymers are always amorphous. Increasing the crystallinity of these polymers is challenging and as a result the typical tolerances one can expect on these plastics would rarely be below 50-100 microns. PTFE, with fillers of glass, can be machined to a tolerance of as low as 10 microns (0.01mm), but this is only in special cases.

In general, polymers which have a smaller difference between their glass transition and service temperatures would offer higher predictability on dimensions in applications where the temperature would fluctuate.


Glass Transition Temperature

Max Service Temperature


Polymer Name

Value (°C)

Value (°C)


ABS - Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene




CPVC - Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride




HDPE - High Density Polyethylene




HIPS - High Impact Polystyrene




LDPE - Low Density Polyethylene




PA 11, Rigid




PA 12, Rigid




PA 6 - Polyamide 6




PA 66 - Polyamide 6-6




PAI - Polyamide-Imide




PC - Polycarbonate, high heat




PEEK - Polyetheretherketone




PEI - Polyetherimide




PESU - Polyethersulfone




PET - Polyethylene Terephthalate




PFA - Perfluoroalkoxy




PI - Polyimide




PMMA - Polymethylmethacrylate/Acrylic




POM - Polyoxymethylene (Acetal)




PP (Polypropylene) Homopolymer




PPS - Polyphenylene Sulfide




PPSU - Polyphenylene Sulfone




PSU - Polysulfone




PTFE (Teflon)




PVC Rigid




PVDF - Polyvinylidene Fluoride









Processes to limit dimensional deviation

Coming back to the issue with PEEK, the fact remains that PEEK is used in many high-temperature applications. The method to ensure its stability is tricky and involves a lot of trial and error. Annealing the part at above its glass transition temperature and allowing it to cool gradually can help immensely in ensuring that the molecular realignment is minimised. In other words, by letting the plastic become amorphous and then re-crystallise, we limit the extent to which dimensional deviations can occur during operation. Annealing is highly critical to PEEK, since non-annealed parts will easily crack not only during operation, but during machining itself. PEEK is somewhat unique in that it may even require annealing between machining operations to ensure that the structure of the polymer is being allowed to relax each time stresses are placed on it. This repeated annealing needs to be done using trial and error – as each component would behave differently and react in its own way to a specific machining operation.

Ultimately, the choice of polymer would depend on several factors other than temperature. However, it is very important to note that when making the choice for a polymer in a high-temperature application, thought needs to be given not only to the maximum service temperature, but also to the fluctuations in temperature during operation. Only by comparing this with the glass transition temperature can one be assured that the polymer fits the application.

Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) - A robust polymer with multiple applications

Finding the right polymer solution for a given application can be tricky. Typically, an application will specify a certain load or temperature that the polymer component would need to withstand. Using these parameters, one usually sets out to find a polymer that is compatible and also cost effective.

When we talk of polymers that can withstand high pressures, there are many that come to mind. Indeed, if pressure is the only criteria, then most polymers – including Polypropylene, Polyethylene, PVC, PA6, Acetal or UHMWPE – are both cost effective and robust. But when temperature is added to the mix – especially anything in excess of 150-200°C, then the list stars thinning out considerably. For the longest time, PTFE and PEEK were the most obvious choices in this scenario. The only issue was that PTFE tends to deform, while PEEK is prohibitively expensive.

Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is a semi crystalline, high temperature engineering thermoplastic. It is rigid and opaque polymer with a high melting point (280°C). In terms of properties, it can hold its own against PTFE, PEEK and even PI (Polyimide). Cost-wise, it rests somewhere in between PTFE and PEEK, making it a good balance between the two.

PPS offers an excellent balance of properties such as:

Key Properties of Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) Polymer

PPS can also be easily processed, using both injection moulding and compression moulding. Furthermore, its toughness increases at high temperatures and it is resistant to certain chemicals that affect PEEK, making it a material of choice in industries such as paper processing, where such chemicals are prevalent.

These assets make Polyphenylene sulfide a chosen alternative to metals and thermosets for use in automotive parts, appliances, electronics and several others applications.

Some of the key producers of PPS include:
   »  Toray Resin Company - TORELINA®, TORAYCA®
   »  RTP Company - RTP 1300 series
   »  Solvay - Ryton®, PrimoSpire®, Tribocomp®
   »  Celanese - FORTRON®, CoolPoly®, Celstran®
   »  Polyplastics - DURAFIDE®
   »  Lehman & Voss - LUVOCOM®

What is PPS Made From?

The first commercial process for PPS was developed by Edmonds and Hill (US patent 3 354 129, Yr. 1967) while working at Philips Petroleum under the brand name Ryton.

Today, all commercial processes use improved versions of this method. PPS is produced by reaction of sodium sulphide and dichlorobenzene in a polar solvent such as N-methylpyrrolidone and at higher temperature [at about 250° C (480° F)].

Synthesis of PPS

In the original process developed by Philips, the product obtained had a low molecular weight and could be used mainly for coating applications. To produce moulding grades, PPS is cured (chain extended or crosslinked) around the melting point of the polymer in the presence of a small amount of air. This curing process results in:

  • Increased molecular weight

  • Increased toughness

  • Loss of solubility

  • Decrease in melt flow

  • Decrease in crystallinity

  • A darkening in colour (a brownish colour in contrast to this linear PPS grades are off-white)

Over time, modifications to the process have been reported to eliminate the curing stage and develop products with improved mechanical strength.

Key Properties of Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS)

Crystal Structure and Physical Properties

PPS is a semi-crystalline polymer. Knowledge about the crystallization behaviour of PPS is very important to understand the recommended processing parameters. The following table shows the phase transition temperatures of PPS. Ranges depend on mol. weight and curing status (linear or crosslinked).

Glass Transition Temperature (Tg)

85 - 95 °C

Crystallization on Heating (Tc-h)

120 - 140 °C

Cristallite Melting (Tm)

275 - 285 °C

Recrystallization on cooling (T c-c)

255 - 225 °C


1.35 g/cm3

Gamma Radiation Resistance


UV Light Resistance


HDT @0.46 Mpa (67 psi)

140 - 160 °C

HDT @1.8 Mpa (264 psi)

100 - 135 °C

Max Continuous Service Temperature

200 - 220 °C

Thermal Insulation (Thermal Conductivity)

0.29 - 0.32 W/m.K

Phase Transition Temperatures & Other Physical Properties of PPS

Dimensional Stability

PPS is an ideal material of choice to produce complex parts with very tight tolerances. The polymer exhibits excellent dimensional stability even when used under high temperature and high humidity conditions.

Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion

3 - 5 x 10-5 /°C


0.6 - 1.4 %

Water Absorption 24 hours

0.01 - 0.07 %

Electrical Properties

PPS has excellent electrical insulation properties. Both the high-volume resistivity and insulation resistance are retained after exposure to high-humidity environments. It has a less pronounced O2 sensitivity and can be conveniently doped to get high conductivity.

Arc Resistance

124 sec

Dielectric Constant

3 - 3.3

Dielectric Strength

11 - 24 kV/mm

Dissipation Factor

4 - 30 x 10-4

Volume Resistivity

15 - 16 x1015 Ohm.cm

Thermal Properties and Fire Resistance

PPS is a high-temperature specialty polymer. Most of the PPS compounds pass UL94V-0 standard without adding flame retardant. PPS can be resistance to 260°C for short time and used below 200°C for a long time.

Fire Resistance (LOI)

43 - 47 %

Flammability UL94


Mechanical Properties

PPS has high strength, high rigidity and low degradation characteristics even in high temperature conditions. It also shows excellent fatigue endurance and creep resistance.

Elongation at Break


Elongation at Yield


Flexibility (Flexural Modulus)

3.8-4.2 GPa

Hardness Rockwell M


Hardness Shore D


Stiffness (Flexural Modulus)

3.8-4.2 GPa

Strength at Break (Tensile)

50-80 MPa

Strength at Yield (Tensile)

50-80 MPa

Toughness (Notched Izod Impact at Room Temperature)

5 - 25 J/m

Young Modulus

3.3 - 4 GPa

Click here to compare the mechanical properties of reinforced grades vs. unfilled neat polymer

Chemical Properties

PPS has good chemical resistance. If cured, it is unaffected by alcohols, ketones, chlorinated aliphatic compounds, esters, liquid ammonia etc. however, it tends to be affected by dilute HCl and nitric acids as well as conc. sulphuric acid. It is insensitive to moisture and has good weatherability.

PPS has however, a lower elongation to break, a higher cost and is rather brittle.

Optimizing the properties of PPS

There are a great number of PPS compounds in the market. Due to the chemical robustness of the polymer, a great variety of fillers and reinforcing fibres and combinations of these can be applied.

PPS resin is generally reinforced with various materials or blended with other thermoplastics in order to further improve its mechanical and thermal properties. Key fillers include glass fibre, carbon fibre, and PTFE.

Key grades available include:

  • Unfilled Natural

  • 25%, 30% and 40% glass filled

  • Glass mineral filled

  • Conductive and Anti-Static Grades

  • Internally lubricated bearing grades

  • PPS+20% PTFE

The mechanical properties of reinforced grades differ significantly from the unfilled neat polymer. The typical property values for reinforced and filled grades fall in the range as shown in the table below.

Property (Unit)

Test Method


Glass Reinforced

Glass-Mineral Filled*

Filler Content (%)





Density (kg/l)

ISO 1183



1.90 - 2.05

Tensile Strength (Mpa)

ISO 527




Elongation at Break (%)

ISO 527




Flexural Modulus (MPa)

ISO 178




Flexural Strength (MPa)

ISO 178




Izod notched Impact Strength (KJ/m2)

ISO 180/1A




HDT/A (1.8 Mpa) (°C)

ISO 75




Typical Mechanical Properties of PPS and PPS Compounds
Data from Product brochures: DURAFIDE®, Polyplastics; Ryton®, Solvay
* depending on filler ratio Glass / Mineral

Typically neat polymer grades are used for fibres and films, whereas filled/reinforced grades are used for a great variety of applications in thermally and/or chemically demanding environment.

Further PPS-based nanocomposites can also be prepared using carbon nanofillers (expanded graphite (EG) or ultrasonicated EG (S-EG), CNTs) or inorganic nanoparticles. Due to insolubility of PPS in common organic solvents, most PPS-nanocomposites have been prepared by melt-blending approach. One of the main reasons for adding nanofillers to PPS is to improve its mechanical properties to meet the increasingly high demand of certain applications.

Popular Applications of PPS

The excellent properties of PPS with its ease of production and moderate cost makes it one of the most suitable choices for various applications where cost and high performance are essential.

Automotive Applications/ Automobile Parts

Polyphenylene Sulfide applications in automotive market have seen strong growth mainly due to its ability to replace metal, thermosets and other types of plastic, in more demanding applications. It is an ideal choice for automotive parts exposed to:

  • High temperatures, 

  • Automotive fluids 

  • Mechanical stress

PPS is a lighter weight alternative to metals, resistant to corrosion by salts and all automotive fluids. The ability to mould complex parts to tight tolerances and the insert moulding capability accommodate multiple component integrations.

Under-the-hood is the largest application area for PPS followed by electrical parts. PPS applications in automotive include fuel injection systems, coolant systems, water pump impellers, thermostat holder, electric brakes, switches, bulb housing and so on.

It is rarely used for the manufacture of interior or exterior auto parts.

Electronic and Electrical Applications

Owing to its high temperature resistance, high toughness, good dimensional stability and good rigidity, PPS becomes an ideal material of choice in E&E market.

  • Offers excellent flow and low shrinkage for precision moulding of connectors and sockets

  • Provides superior stiffness and mechanical integrity for reliable assembly

  • Is the most stable material choice for all soldering methods

PPS compounds also have UL94 V-0 flammability ratings without the use of flame-retardant additives. Special low flash grades have been developed to meet the needs of high precision moulding applications.

In the electrical / electronic sector, Polyphenylene Sulfide is also used to manufacture a range of articles including bobbins and connectors, hard disk drives, electronic housings, sockets, switches and relays. The key trend influencing PPS growth in electrical / electronic applications is substitution of other lower temperature polymers.


Thanks to its exceptional dimensional stability, low density, corrosion and hydrolysis resistance, PPS can be used to manufacture heating and air conditioning components, fry pan handles, hair dryer grills, Steam iron valves, toaster and dryer switches, microwave oven turntables etc. in electric appliances.

Industrial Applications

PPS has been replacing metal alloys, thermosets, and many other thermoplastics in mechanical engineering applications. The thermal stability and broad chemical resistance of Polyphenylene Sulfide make it exceptionally well suited to service in very hostile chemical environments.

  • It finds uses in many heavy industrial applications, including some outside the arena of reinforced injection moulding compounds

  • It is used in fibre extrusion as well as in non-stick and chemical resistant coatings

  • It is well suited to manufacture mechanically and thermally highly stressed moulded parts

  • In machine construction and precision engineering, PPS is used for various components such as pumps, valves and piping

  • It can also be found in oil field equipment such as lift and centrifugal pump components, oil patch drop balls, rod guides and scrapers

  • In the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment sector, Polyphenylene Sulfide is used for compressors, mufflers/reservoirs, hot water circulation components, induced draft blower housing, motor relays and switches, power vent components and thermostat components

Medical and Healthcare Applications

PPS compounds (typically glass reinforced grades) are used in medical application such as surgical instruments and device components and parts that require high dimensional stability, strength and heat resistance. PPS fibres are also used in medical fibres and membranes.


As processing techniques advance and scale develops, it is likely that PPS would become the material of choice many industrial, automotive, and electrical applications. It remains to be seen where else this polymer can find use, since its versatility lends itself to such a wide range of usability.